didn't have competitors. So it was very easy for us to simply get people jobs. Everyone knew they would get a job and would probably get a lifetime job they would continue for a very long period without having to worry about switching jobs or low wage rates. But this period is now over. International competition means that people do not necessarily have jobs for a very long period of time. If they lose their job, they may have to take a job that is less well paid than the one they had before. They may have to take two jobs rather than one. And the result of this is a good deal of uncertainty among the American and other electorates that face similar problems, where people are starting to recognize that the state cannot solve the problem for them. And when they think the state can't do it, they are tempted, at least for a while, to think that maybe there may be some other kinds of loyalties to other types of organizations -- cultural, ethnic, political -- that might give them more sense of community, more sense of support than the state can now provide. So I think there is an intrinsic period of anomie or alienation from government that stems from this. Now I don't think this is a long-term problem, because just as was true after the industrial revolution in England, the people who lost jobs, maybe they were not immediately re-employed in something else, but certainly the jobs did come back in other categories and real wages did not decline in England. And I don't think real wages are going to decline in the United States either, even though they have hit a plateau now and haven't been rising recently. So I do think, in time, people will be able to find adequate jobs, but again, that will be on the basis of slightly higher educational qualifications than they have at the moment. But for this period of time, I think there will be a period of malaise, a period of alienation from the state, [and] the feeling that maybe someone else can do better for us than our country has done.
Q: You also talk about the United States remaining introverted politically and culturally. Is this part of the same process?
A: Yes. As long as you think you can do everything for yourself, and you don't have to pay attention to what is going on outside and that the welfare state can provide for you, then it is a luxury to have to learn any other language. It is a luxury to have to work abroad. It is a luxury to have to think in terms of globalization and its effects upon you personally. I think we have had, at least as compared to Europe, a very, very national and culturally oriented country as a whole. I just came back from three months in Florence, and you can't say the Italians believe that their society is going to provide for them in every respect. They have to worry about German and French and Mediterranean competition of all kinds. And they are prepared to move abroad. They are prepared to go to Spain, or Germany, or France to find jobs that they cannot find in Italy. In our case, you ask: How well prepared are our people to go somewhere else if they need to find a job? And I think the answer is: Not very well prepared.
Q: Americans don't even think about moving overseas as a possible necessity to doing well.
A: Exactly. Whereas European workers think about it all the time. They think about learning the languages that are necessary to making that kind of shift. Even Turks have learned perfect German and have worked in Germany for twenty years. And Americans don't