money, and they are not even getting on the roads, clogging the infrastructure -- they are going to tax them.

What we have to understand is that people working at home -- the artist, the craftsperson, whether it is in entertainment or designing furniture or making pottery -- are going to be the backbone of this new renaissance if there is going to be any renaissance.

Multimedia is a great example of this. The Bay Area Economic Forum did a survey trying to estimate what home media employment was. Again, all numbers in this field are either changing so rapidly or are hard to define, but let's just say what the Bay Area Economic Forum came up with: Los Angeles, 133,000 jobs; San Francisco, 60,000; New York, 60,000. But what was interesting is not just that L.A. is large, but that three big sectors of this new industry are concentrated heavily in virgin areas like Boston. And in other areas, there is a great deal of growth in the home media field.

Why? Because this industry is a transformative industry. It is taking what already exists in the information and culture industry and moving more and more into an intersection with technology. That is where cities have a great future. Each city has a different characteristic to its multimedia industry. New York is tied to advertising and publishing. San Francisco is a little bit more towards marketing and technology. In Los Angeles, entertainment and digital imaging are prominently on the cutting edge. So when you take a look at what cities can do, one thing that can provide high-income jobs for cities in the future is the multimedia and entertainment industry.

You have this huge artisan sector, which again feeds into creating the images that are also used in the entertainment industry. These firms in

furniture and garments and textiles, bicycle parts and the design of bicycles -- these are again classic urban industries which are beginning to come back, particularly in places like Los Angeles and Houston, where we are seeing a strong revival of a certain kind of manufacturing. We have to nurture this new urban economy. We have to begin to rediscover why cities exist. Because cities, without redefining who they are, must begin to understand what they can do that rural areas are not good at. That is the only way they will find a competitive edge.

Q: The population trends show that more people are moving away from the core of big cities. This clearly creates problems.

A: Yes, but that does not mean that cities can't find the right kind of niche where they can flourish in the years ahead. The question is: What do cities need to do to flourish and attract commerce? What is it that will create urban environments that attract people? Take the great people who have made an impact in multimedia in New York City, for instance. Well, a large number of people are attracted to the cultural institutions in New York.

Cities have to think about creating interesting urban environments. You cannot "out mall" the suburbs. But what you can do is create interesting, enjoyable, eclectic, spontaneous urban environments where people want to come to shop. We've seen this effect in Pasadena; we've seen this effect in Santa Monica; and we've seen this effect on streets like Melrose.

I remember one time I had a group from Phoenix, and I was taking them down Melrose Avenue and they said, "Can't we get something like this in Phoenix," as if some developer could come in and create a street with stores like Wacko and things like that. That comes out of the urban culture. It comes out of the kind of people who want to live in cities. And I think if we can

Blake Harris  |  Editor