or systems), technology, security, and human capital (this last one is currently missing from the Federal Enterprise Architecture).
In EA planning, we develop the current architecture--where we are today in terms of business and technology resources, the target--where we want to be in the future through business process improvement and technology enablement, and the transition plan--how do we get from where we are today to where we want to be in the future.
More mature EA's provide business, data, and systems models, and identify gaps, redundancies, inefficiencies, and opportunities in the business and IT and recommend business process improvement, reengineering, and new technologies to improve organizational performance.
2. Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC) or IT governance -- manages the IT investment decision processes of selecting, controlling, and evaluating new or major changes to the IT portfolio ( i.e. to put those plans to work and make them pay-off). CPIC can ensure that IT investments maximize return on investment, minimize or mitigate risk and provide for strategic alignment to the business.
CPIC also helps make IT investments technically compliant by ensuring that desirable IT behaviors are followed, such as information sharing and quality, interoperability, component reuse, standardization, simplification, cost-efficiency, and of course security.
3. Project Management Office (PMO) -- oversees the effective execution on the IT projects. These projects derive from the EA technical roadmap and transition strategy and from IT investment decisions coming out of the governance board(s) in CPIC. Project management is how we manage all facets of a project to include scope, schedule, cost, quality, project resources, integration, communications, and more, from the initiation of a project through its closeout. Project managers typically develop the work breakdown structures, project schedules, and monitor and manage progress to these.
4. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) or IT service management -- for managing service and support to our customer with "one call does it all". As opposed to customer management within IT operations which is focused on helpdesk, availability, break-fix, and support issues, CRM in support of the CIO is focused on serving as IT liaisons to the business responsible for overall customer satisfaction, generating and managing customer requirements, supporting business case development, and handling internal business complaints, issues, and coordinating problem resolution with IT operations.
5. IT Security (ITS) -- how we conduct IT security policy and planning. This function encompasses how we plan, assess, and enforce IT security, and not the actual implementation of IT Security, which is an operational IT function. This functional area includes preparing certifications and accreditations, risk assessments, security plans, vulnerability testing, security awareness training, and security policies. IT security ensures the confidentiality, availability, integrity, and privacy of the organizations information.
6. Business Performance Management (BPM) -- how we measure and drive performance, so we know whether we are hitting the EA target or not. BPM involves identifying performance measures, capturing, analyzing and reporting on metrics, and providing the CIO with IT executive dashboard views to inform which programs and projects that are on track, challenged and in jeopardy of failure.
Typically BPM provides for a drill-down capability, so high-level "red-yellow-green" program/project indicators and milestones can be decomposed into lower levels of detail for trends, analysis and making course corrections. BPM should provide a feedback mechanism for how the IT function is performing and drive continuous process and performance improvement in the CIO organization.
Together these six areas make up a holistic and synergistic set of support functions constitute a fully capable Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) in the center.
In creating a strong OCIO, the CIO Support Services Framework wisely separates the policy, planning and oversight functions from the IT operations. This is beneficial in two main ways: First, this enables the CIO to strategically and proactively direct IT operations, rather than being in perpetual firefighting and reactive mode. Second, the separation of duties -- strategy from operations -- creates a healthier organizational dynamic and interplay in IT, where the fox is not left guarding the chicken coop.
Part 2 of this article will explore IT best practice frameworks and implementation of the CIO Support Services Framework.