According Xijing Hospital, the implant of these three 3-D printed bones were the world’s first clinical applications for collar and shoulder bones. All three patients had malignant tumors that required removal. Using a 3-D printer to replace the removed bones in each patient was identified as beneficial for several reasons. Scans of the patients allowed the hospital to reproduce titanium implants that were in the exact shape of the patients’ original bones. The surface textures of 3-D printed bones are also more similar to real bones than the smooth surfaces of traditional artificial replacements, allowing for enhanced muscle, bone and soft tissue growth around the implant, while also lowering the chance of fluid build-up and infection.