Concerns about racial disparity and the Internet were discussed and debated in the press and among scholars throughout the 1990s, but the issue didnt really come to a head until 1998. That year, for the first time, two scholars presented concrete demographic research that showed a digital divide along racial and economic lines.
In their report, "Bridging the Digital Divide: The Impact of Race on Computer Access and Internet Use," Professors Donna L. Hoffman and Thomas P. Novak of Vanderbilt University provided evidence showing that whites were more likely to have a computer at home and to use the Web than blacks. More disturbing was the fact that white students were twice as likely to have a computer than black students, and whites who didnt have a computer were five times more likely than blacks to find another way to use the Web, such as at a friends house, a library or a community center.
Evidence of a racial divide on the Internet was further reinforced the following year when the U.S. Department of Commerce released its report, "Falling Through the Net," which concluded that the gap between the technology "haves" and "have-nots" had increased between 1994 and 1997, with blacks and Hispanics falling further behind. Backing this evidence was a survey taken in 1999 by the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, which showed that, while blacks are increasingly likely to use the Internet, the participation gap between whites and blacks had widened by nearly 50 percent over figures from 1998.
The centers study showed the gap was most noticeable at poverty levels. Only 11 percent of black households with incomes under $15,000 reported using the Internet compared with 23 percent of whites earning the same income. With nearly one in four black families living at that poverty level, compared to 17 percent for whites, 14 percent for Hispanics and 7 percent for Asians, alarm bells started ringing in the federal government.
In his final State of the Union address, President Clinton vowed to attack the digital divide with a program called ClickStart, which would make $100 million in subsidies available to get nearly 10 million poor households online. The reason for such a program was clear, explained Clinton. "Today, opportunity for all requires something new: having access to a computer and knowing how to use it. That means we must close the digital divide between those who have these tools and those who dont."
Later, the White House expressed more succinctly the reason for the subsidy: Access to computers and the Internet and the ability to effectively use this technology are becoming increasingly important for full participation in Americas economic, political and social life.
With new evidence of a racial divide on the Internet mounting almost daily, black leaders began voicing concern about the digital divide, with some calling it a racial ravine. In March, the Rev. Jesse Jackson opened an office in East Palo Alto, Calif., on the edge of Silicon Valley. The opening was part of his effort to close the digital divide for the poor in general and blacks in particular.
But just as government and black leaders began to marshal support for closing the race gap on the Internet, new studies began to emerge, stating that the biggest gap on the Internet was not between ethnic groups, but the rich and poor. In April last year, Forrester Research issued a study showing a divide based not on ethnicity, but on disparities of income, age and education within the major ethnic groups. "In 1999, connectivity to the Net from home increased by at least 11 percent for all ethnic groups," said Ekaterina O. Walsh, an analyst at Forrester Research.
In June, a similar study by Jupiter Communications came to somewhat the same conclusions. While acknowledging a pronounced gap in Internet usage among ethnic groups, the study projected