The trial, which is expected to conclude by early 2017, is testing a technique whereby scientists create red blood cells by maturing something called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which are cells that have been taken from humans and turned into stem cells. Similar research has been done before, the scientists say, but this is the first time that anyone has undergone this research with the aim of making blood of a high enough quality to be safely transfused into a person.

One of the challenges of the project will be scaling up production, the scientists told The Telegraph, but if successful, it could make transfusions cheaper. Today, it costs about $200 to transfuse one unit of blood using traditional methods, according to The Telegraph.