How Digital is Your State?

Results of the 2016 Digital States Survey indicate that the effort states are putting into innovation, collaboration and aligning their investments with citizens' priorities has never been higher.

by , , , , , , , , / September 18, 2016
In the map above, red signifies a grade in the A category; blue signifies a grade in the B category; and gray signifies a grade in the C category. Click a state to learn its exact grade, and why that grade was given. The contents of this map are also available here.

Just as a school teacher roots for his students, the Center for Digital Government is hopeful every two years that each respondent to its Digital States Survey will astound with reports of their technological feats. Though a competition of sorts, the Digital States Survey is more a showcase of state government's collective technology portfolio. And the outlook suggested by the 2016 survey is as strong as one would expect given the financial growth of the gov tech sector and the public's increasing interest in civic participation.

No states received a D or F, and just eight states landed in the C grade range. A growing number of states fill out the top of the curve compared to surveys past — 20 states earned a grade of B+ or higher, and a whopping 10 states earned an A or A-.

"The results of the 2016 Digital States Survey are very encouraging," said Todd Sander, executive director of the Center for Digital Government, owned by e.Republic, which also is the parent company of Government Technology. "We did not identify any state trending down with regard to their use of information and communication technology (ICT). I think this reflects how critically important ICT has become to government service delivery, and the priority governors and legislators place on it as we continue to come out of recessionary times. More states received an A grade this year than ever before, and the effort states are putting into innovation, collaboration and making sure their investments are well aligned with the priorities of the people they serve has never been higher."

States with a solid A grade this year are Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, Utah and Virginia. Common trends among the A students were a strong focus on cybersecurity, shared services, cloud computing, IT staffing, budgeting and use of data.

But even among the best, there were those who stretched ahead even further to demonstrate to rest of the nation what best practices look like. Programs that particularly impressed judges were Missouri's public safety initiatives; Virginia's health and human services projects; and Utah's leading-edge efforts spanning transportation, citizen engagement, transparency, mobile government and social media.

Judges cited Utah's transportation efforts as particularly impressive for both their impact and innovative use of technology. Late last year, the Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) equipped its fleet of more than 500 vehicles with GPS trackers. The public can access real-time information about snowplows to better plan their trips, while an automated system lets the department know how the machines are functioning. An Automated Traffic Signal Performance Metrics program and Web interface supplies both the department and the public with more than a dozen metrics indicating traffic flow throughout the state, which predicted that its intelligent transportation systems save more than $100 million annually.

"With transportation particularly, we've taken a very data-driven approach and automation to almost all functions," said Utah Chief Technology Officer Dave Fletcher. "Our Automated Traffic Signal Performance Metrics program … enables us to do a lot of the timing functions a lot better, and one of the things we report on to the public is metrics like the percent of vehicles that are arriving on a green or red light, and how they're moving and how the traffic is flowing, so we've been able to significantly reduce the number of stops at red lights over a period of time that that's been in effect. We've also made that software available to other states, and I know at least close to a dozen states are using the software that was developed here in Utah."

The state's prolific success across not just transportation, but nearly all its state departments, was realized through years of commitment to technology; technology is no longer icing on the cake in Utah, but the flour to which all other ingredients must cling.

"It's just grown over time," Fletcher explained. "I think it's now embedded in the culture, so our managers, our directors at the different departments and in the case of UDOT, the director's been with the state a long time and so he's grown up, so to speak, in a data-driven environment where we're always trying to innovate, and I think that's become built in to his approach to transportation."

Missouri was also awarded an A grade, attributable to its emphasis on technology policy and projects. The crown jewel of the state's efforts are its public safety and emergency management programs. Missouri Highway Patrol's enhanced MO Automated Criminal History System fingerprint portal integrates with live-scan fingerprint devices, cross references fingerprint searches with iris scans and photos, and replaces a legacy system that was more than 10 years old. The new system can also connect with the FBI's record system so other states can use Missouri's data. Other innovative projects include a multi-state shared services offender management system, a new inmate banking system, three new administrative Web portals and an online continuing education system.

The state's outstanding performance in this area can be credited not only to leadership from Gov. Jay Nixon's office, but also to a tech-centric culture that runs throughout state departments, explained Missouri Acting CIO Richard Kliethermes.

"I think it's the value of the partnership that we have with the highway patrol and their IT organization in that we are communicating, we are collaborating from the perspective of what can we assist with versus can they help us out," Kliethermes said. "One example was a record management system (RMS) that the department of natural resources is soon to be using and is in the final stages of implementation but that's hosted on the highway patrol's internal domain. So we utilize the contract mechanism that the highway patrol created to allow smaller agencies to join on the contract, and then they are actually hosting the RMS in their environment. From an officer safety, business process improvement standpoint, it's a large accomplishment."

Political leadership was cited as a critical factor in all of the top states in this year's survey. Virginia's A grade can be traced to Gov. Terry McAuliffe's mission to create a "new Virginia economy." The state's IT office supported that mission in a range of projects, from transportation and natural resources to education and public safety — but perhaps most of all with a suite of enhancements in the commonwealth's health and human services agencies.

A new Medicaid Case Management System allowed for the retirement of a legacy mainframe system and has processed more than 900,000 applications since October 2014. Strong cross-agency integration and data-driven systems launched across behavioral health, aging and rehabilitation and learning management enable new operational possibilities for the state. The Virginia Hospital Alerting and Status System integrated with emergency management for the simplified transmission of emergency reports. The Virginia Department of Health's Web portal gives users an avenue to easily research health issues and connect with providers. A mobile app helps locals find healthy restaurants and farmers markets, while the formation of three city-level coalitions supports the Department of Transportation's mission to make the city safer for walkers, cyclers and motorists.

Virginia CIO Nelson Moe explained that the successful and diverse set of technology projects the state has developed during the last two years are the result of hard work across the organization, from cross-agency and cross-secretarial collaboration to a tech-friendly work culture at the most foundational levels of state government.

"The fundamental force behind it is all the agencies in the health and human services area use IT to enhance their services, while protecting their data in an appropriate manner," said Moe. "It's nothing I have led personally, to be honest. In this case, the environment for success for them allows us to move forward with these different areas of focus, which is enhancing the services and protecting the data."

Alongside Utah, Michigan has ranked at the top of the survey since 2004 and has now earned an A grade in four consecutive surveys. In 2016, Michigan continues to serve as an exemplar of sound governance in state technology, led by Gov. Rick Snyder's "River of Opportunity" initiative that promotes health and self-sufficiency for families not through the creation of new programs but by running government more efficiently.

A private cloud enables partner agencies to access database-as-a-service, graphical information system, and licensing and permitting, while imagery collected through the Michigan Statewide Authoritative Imagery & LiDAR (MiSAIL) program is shared across the 29 counties to the tune of $3 million in savings.

The state stays abreast of cutting-edge technological developments, too, equipping within the past two years an increasing number of state assets with sensors for integration with the Internet of Things, including assets by state police, transportation and environmental departments. The state is also consulting with outside experts on possible opportunities around connected vehicles.

The key to Michigan's success has been a long-term commitment to technology and support, and direction from the governor's office, explained state CIO David Behen.

"It's a culmination of a few things," Behen said of Michigan's technological success. "The vision we have is around customer-centric government, which is really taking our services to the citizens through our mobile application MiPage. I'm so proud of our team because it's our mobile-first strategy, our cloud-first strategy, our enterprise information management, which is our big data program, and our cybersecurity strategy. All of those things have made the foundation for where we are today."

Ohio's 2016 survey response indicates an increased emphasis on IT savings and service delivery built on years of incremental improvement. The state has climbed the ranks of the survey over the past decade, ascending from the bottom 25 states to a respectable B- grade, and then an A- grade in 2012 and 2014. The state is proud to have finally earned an A, said CIO Stu Davis.

"We've been chasing an A for about the last six years," Davis said, "And I think this submission, this particular year, was the first time that we were in a position to articulate the savings and really validate that this administration and Gov. [John] Kasich are pushing. We're seeing the results now. I think that's what tipped it over for us and put us in the A column."

The centerpiece of Ohio's technology achievements is a transition in IT spending that diverts funds away from operations and toward services for citizens and government. In years past, about 80 percent of the state's IT budget was dedicated to maintaining infrastructure, with the remainder left for software. With an eye on reversing those numbers, the state managed to divide the funding 50/50, with even more infrastructure savings expected to come.

"I think our trend is trying to get down infrastructure and operations costs to about 30 percent of that dollar and the rest going toward the things that matter," Davis said, "that bring value to the citizenry and the businesses in the state of Ohio."

The state realized its transition away from decadent infrastructure spending in large part through a thorough consolidation effort. As happens in so many large organizations, duplication of IT effort across a hodgepodge of 26 agencies generated needless complexity and waste.

"Over the course of since about January 2013 is when we put the plan out and we started working the plan later that spring, and we went from 675 managed environments to just over 5,500 right now," Davis said. "I think that's really where that shift came from."

The consolidation allowed IT infrastructure costs to drop from $26 million in 2014 to $5 million in 2015.

"We're managing it centrally, there's consistency in our process, security's been centralized," Davis explained. "There's been a lot of activity that's taken some of the costs away from the agency and lets the agency focus on their mission."

View the text of our state by state analysis below.

View the official results of the 2016 Digital States Survey.

 

State by State Analysis


Alabama
2016 Grade: C+ 
2014 Grade: C 
CIO: Joanne Hale (Acting Secretary of Information Technology)

Alabama improved on its 2014 grade by focusing on storage virtualization and converged infrastructure technologies while bolstering its internal and external programs. Among the state’s tech-centric initiatives, strategic planning efforts have taken center stage under the leadership of Gov. Robert Bentley, who advocates for the “right-sizing” of government. The Office of the Secretary of Information Technology is no longer putting its energy toward delivery of technology, but is instead focusing on creating enterprisewide change through thoughtful governance and policy. Since 2014, the state has allocated more than $1 million to upgrade enterprise networks to better position the state for the modern needs of government, state employees and citizens. Data center consolidation has also taken a priority spot for Alabama. The process of migrating the primary data center to a newer and more secure location is underway, and when completed will ensure more robust security for the valuable data infrastructure. In 2014, the state initially released its IT strategic plan, but the six areas outlined in that plan remain key focuses: procurement, personnel, addressing funding shortfalls, managing legacy systems, leveraging data analytics and communications. Alabama’s Employee Portal acts as the primary location for personnel information and has allowed for a reduction of travel expenses by 25 percent. Additionally, the implementation of the Department of Education’s Cohort Tracking System allows for more efficient tracking of high-school-age students in public schools.


Alaska
2016 Grade:  C
2014 Grade:  C-
CIO: Jim Steele
Alaska is another government that improved its Digital States Survey grade between 2014 and now. Despite the challenges of decentralization and budgetary constraints, the state is moving forward to better organize its IT enterprise and bolster its ability to respond to both internal and external customers. Data is driving more of the decisions being made by state officials, and careful attention is being paid to identifying the industry-accepted benchmarks necessary to leverage analytics more successfully. In 2015, the state rolled out the a new accounting system, IRIS, to manage costs and expenses across all fiscal teams. The Task Order Procurement System allows agencies to circumvent the time-consuming RFP process to access a pre-vetted pool of vendors. The decentralized nature of government in Alaska makes improved communications necessary across the vast state. The Alaska Land Mobile Radio, a Motorola end-point radio-based system, connects first responders with each other and the military with the scalability to expand or contract as needed. In addition, the state’s Department of Motor Vehicles is working with the Division of Enterprise Technology Services to overhaul its backbone application.


Arizona
2016 Grade: B
2014 Grade: B
CIO: Morgan Reed
Arizona has its sights set on providing more central services across the federated state IT landscape. The state’s cloud-first policy signaled a shift away from the spending and restrictions of antiquated data centers and a move toward a more efficient way of doing business. A Statewide IT Strategic Plan outlines goals and initiatives for fiscal 2017 through fiscal 2019, with a focus on providing a consistent user experience and harnessing online capabilities, mobile apps and innovative solutions. The plan identified recent accomplishments including: the launch of an employee training portal that enabled staff to complete 4,600 hours in training; the publication and update of nearly 30 statewide security and IT policies; and converting and launching 100 agency websites on Drupal. Currently Arizona state government employs more than 30 email systems, and discussion around cloud-based systems are underway. A new system would prompt collaboration and communication across the enterprise. When it comes to the state’s security stance, officials say outside experts are likely to fill the gaps created by funding limitations and growing security demands. Over the course of the next year, more developers and partners will be brought in to increase productivity and move applications online for the public.


Arkansas
2016 Grade: B
2014 Grade: B+
CIO: Mark Myers
In a multifaceted effort to improve the lives of Arkansans using technology, the governor and state legislators played integral roles in furthering education and bringing government services to residents. Although established in 1992, the Arkansas Public School Computer Network only provided 5 percent of the total bandwidth for K-12 schools. The schools primarily relied on private ISPs to make up the difference, creating a disjointed and uneven web for Arkansas students. In response, Gov. Asa Hutchinson initiated a plan to build an aggregated, highly secure, all-fiber network in which the state would fund 200 Kbps per user of broadband connectivity to every public and charter school in Arkansas. As of May 2016, over 127 of 276 education entities were transitioned to the upgraded network with the rest of the schools expected to join by July 2017.  

However, it is not just schools that have benefitted from the state’s innovation. Last year the state, in partnership with state portal provider NIC, released Gov2Go, a “Personal Government Assistant” app capable of performing several government services and setting up reminders for tax payment deadlines or license renewals. Some have pointed to the app as an example of the future of the government website — a direction other states have since talked about emulating. The state's Web team worked with the Department of Finance and Administration, the County Collectors Association and the Secretary of State’s office to get their support to funnel all the services into one sleek, cohesive app.


California
2016 Grade: B+ 
2014 Grade: B+
CIO: Amy Tong
The state government of California likes to follow its private-sector counterparts. As Silicon Valley continues to push the boundaries of data and technology, so too does the state. Through procurement, delivery of online services and commitment to transparency, Gov. Jerry Brown and the state government have shown why they are deserving of a B+. Being the state with the largest GDP and subsequently the largest budget, lawmakers have an obligation to see that taxpayer money is responsibly spent. That was one of the primary reasons for the formation of the Financial Information System for California, which is tasked with transforming state government budgeting, accounting, procurement and cash management functionality. California also works to harness the forward-thinking spirit of the private sector through the creation of the Innovation Hub program, which helps stimulate partnerships, economic development and job creation. 

Matching its effort to innovate the economy, the state demonstrated a willingness to ask the private sector for help. By creating Traffic Volumes and Vehicle Miles Traveled data sets, an open data portal, the Transportation Department has helped private industry understand traffic statewide and identify solutions. Additionally, the Health and Human Services Agency initiated an Open Data Portal program in 2014 and increased access to vital information.
 
Perhaps the greatest gain for California was in its service delivery and expansion of accessibility. With an increasing number of users accessing government websites through mobile devices, the California Mobile Gallery increased the listings of mobile-centric sites by more than 25 percent in 2015. In an updated release of CA.gov, the site now drives location-based content and information personalizing the experience for users depending on their location.


Colorado
2016 Grade: B+
2014 Grade: B+
CIO: Suma Nallapati
2016 proved to be another big year for Colorado. Innovation has been the driving force behind multiple IT initiatives, including cybersecurity and service delivery. Gov. John Hickenlooper recently created the National Cybersecurity Intelligence Center, poised to become one of the country’s foremost authorities on cybersecurity research and development, training and education. The center will also provide real-time support for agencies under attack from hackers. Secure Colorado, the state’s cybersecurity initiative, has also been updated to include strategies for quick and sustainable risk reduction at a reasonable cost while encouraging an environment of innovation, adoption of open source and cloud-based technologies, and data sharing when appropriate. 

Service delivery has been a focal point of the Hickenlooper administration. As some are aware, 2016 is an election year and Colorado is poised to demonstrate some of its newest innovations in modern elections with the implementation of online voter registration as well as same-day registration for all Coloradans. The same-day voter registration has been vendor-tested with four different private partners to ensure a seamless  transition on Election Day. As noted by federal Elections Assistance Commissioner Matt Masterson, "Colorado has set a model for the nation with its voting system selection process." When Nov. 8 rolls around, citizens will be able to visit their designated polling place, register and receive the correct ballot for their district. 


Connecticut
2016 Grade: B+ 
2014 Grade: A-
CIO: Mark Raymond
Connecticut’s Digital States grade dropped slightly from an A- in 2014 to a B+ this year. A key initiative is the state's work to increase the availability of high-speed, low-cost broadband through its CTGig project, a collaborative measure that joined state, local and private-sector businesses to offer more than 50 percent of Connecticut’s residents broadband Internet access. The state has likewise made sizable improvements to its cybersecurity protections. With the aid of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Cyber Hygiene program, a free cyberattack penetration test, the state reduced its estimated vulnerabilities from 960 in February 2016 to 370 in May. To thwart hackers further, Connecticut launched QRadar, a new tool to collect and analyze security events, and has upgraded its Intrusion Prevention and Detection System. The result of these actions allows the state to safeguard systems from 53 percent of all potentially hazardous connection attempts. Yet officials didn’t stop there, for law enforcement Connecticut is utilizing data more effectively by breaking down old information silos. With development of a multiagency, multijurisdictional Criminal Information Sharing System, officials report that law enforcement workers can now, in a “Google-like” way, search between three separate criminal databases as they investigate crimes. What’s more, Connecticut has partnered with Massachusetts to share its data center in Springfield, expanding its capacity to protect and manage IT resources. Other noticeable enhancements include a new Open Data Hub to more easily manage and route data into the state’s open data portal and a strategic five-year plan that knits real-world projects and resources to long-term goals. 


Delaware
2016 Grade: B-
2014 Grade: B 
CIO: James Collins
Delaware is seeing a slight decline from 2014 with a grade that slid from a B to a B-. Yet, despite the drop, Delaware’s use of apps, broadband and public-private partnerships have allowed the state to remain a competitor in the world of government IT. The numbers speak for themselves: Delaware has more than 1,800 applications and a single statewide enterprise resource planning system for its finance and human resources needs. Other apps and digital tools have expanded in the last two years to support citizen access to state benefits, employee records, W-2 tax forms, and a mobile-friendly time and attendance module for staff to track and manage work hours. What’s more, the state has done much to enhance safety for its citizens. Public safety workers are equipped with drunken driving data via a DUI tracking system to provide assistance, there is Web app that funnels crowdsourced reports of suspicious behavior into Delaware’s Public Safety Fusion Center, an intelligence outfit assisting the state police, and the state has a tool called FirstMap that leverages GIS solutions to share and organize resources between agencies. Beyond its artillery of new apps and digital services, state officials are reaping the benefits of an aggressive expansion in their broadband capacity. Gov. Jack Markell’s administration has pushed the state to be in the top tiers of broadband speeds while extending the reach of the network to rural communities by way of the Broadband Grant Fund. Since this fund was signed in 2013, it has required telecommunication providers to make contributions toward rural connectivity. This has produced more than 350 miles of added fiber optics in the last 18 months with future improvements to include fixed wireless services for residents. Finally, the state is investing in transparency and efficiency through its open data portal that will now benefit from an Open Data Council that was established January 2016. The group strives to recommend data standards and policies, data strategy and data sharing opportunities for state agencies.


Florida
2016 Grade
: B+
2014 Grade: C
CIO: Jason Allison
The most improved state of 2016, Florida’s grade jumped from a C in 2014 to a B+ this year. Following a two-year hiatus, legislation created the Agency for State Technology (AST) in 2014, after a central state IT office had been defunded twice since 2005. At its helm, state CIO Jason Allison has been working to rebuild relationships and services while establishing AST as a provider of IT support. AST’s directives include to: manage enterprise security, establish IT project management standards, operate the state data center, and identify opportunities for IT standardization and consolidation. One success on the books is consolidation of the state’s two primary data centers. AST partnered with agencies to move 1,900 servers into a new data center in four months — a project initially considered a two-year effort. In addition, Florida is currently in the midst of a two-year process to obtain ISO 20000 compliance for the state-run Tier III data center. While state agencies have the authority to manage their own applications, some are maintained at the enterprise level, including HR, procurement, and public safety and law enforcement. A Fraud Initiative Rules and Rating Engine implemented in 2014 by the Department of Economic Opportunity has saved more than $529 million through the identification of more than 130,000 fraudulent claims. In addition, to help with the detection of Zika and other public health issues, the Health Department’s award-winning syndromic surveillance system captures information from 95 percent of ER visits in the state.


Georgia
2016 Grade
: A-
2014 Grade: A-
CIO: Calvin Rhodes
Holding steady at an A-, Georgia last year completed an IT overhaul. Proof of its massive scale exists in the numbers: More than 100,000 managed network service users in 1,400 state and local government locations throughout the state were touched by the change. The Georgia Enterprise Technology Services program upgraded employee PCs, completed an email migration to Microsoft 365 in the cloud, and upgraded data networks, servers and telephones. In addition, the state established a multi-sourcing service contractor (Capgemini) in 2015 for its enterprise technology services program, a partnership with multiple providers aimed at offering many service options for state agencies. Georgia received special recognition in the survey for the whole of its IT operations, unique in the extent to which the state outsources its operations. The arrangement has implications for the internal IT workforce too, whose focus is on project management skills versus direct technical capabilities. The state has also made great strides in the accessibility of its online presence since the last survey, as the main portal as well as 78 agency websites are now compliant with accessibility standards. A coalition including the local ADA office, the Georgia Institute of Technology, state IT staff and other accessibility groups continues to meet monthly to monitor progress and suggest additional improvements. Cybersecurity efforts in the state are noteworthy as well for the broad coalition of stakeholders represented on the Georgia Cybersecurity Board, formed by Gov. Nathan Deal in 2015. CIO Calvin Rhodes chairs the board, serving with representatives from the state’s Emergency Management Agency, National Guard and Administrative Services Department. The group reviews the security stance of state agencies, identifies risks and makes recommendations, guided by the FISMA Risk Management Framework. 


Hawaii
2016 Grade
: B
2014 Grade: B+
CIO: Todd Nacapuy
Hawaii's B grade can be attributed to state officials' investment in IT infrastructure, governance strategy, and to a lesser extent, their efforts rejuvenating the state’s open data portal at Data.hawaii.gov. The catalyst for the wave of advances official report came in May 2015 when state CIO Todd Nacapuy set off a consolidation plan to merge Hawaii’s Office of Information Management and Technology (OIMT) and the state’s Department of Accounting and General Services’ Information and Communication Services Division (ICSD). The two entities are now interwoven within the state’s Enterprise Technology Services Office (ETS) and monitored by a new governance strategy that increases accountability for state IT projects. All tech initiatives and purchases that cost a $1 million or more are now required to have the CIO’s signature of approval. Additionally, any new IT contract must embed measurable performance metrics, statutes that  if not met by vendors, might result in withheld payments. Under this heightened level of oversight Hawaii has established a backup data center at University of Hawai‘i, engineered tax modernization program within its IT systems, released a modern online Vital Records Ordering and Tracking System through the Hawaii Department of Health, and deployed an inter-island Digital Microwave Network — a connection of radio towers, facilities and microwave links that enable communications for first responders and government operations. The state isn’t stopping there. Officials are implementing accountability measures through a relaunched open data portal that adds numerous mapping and visualization tools for citizens. The site now has more than double the number of datasets it did in  2015 and is harnessed by departments, entrepreneurs and  civic technologists within the Hawaii Annual Code Challenge hosted by Gov. David Ige.


Idaho
2016 Grade
: B
2014 Grade: B
CIO: Greg Zickau
Idaho’s governor has made cybersecurity a priority, and it shows. The state has adopted aggressive strategies — weekly vulnerability scans for the Department of Transportation, automatic data encryption in the public employee retirement system and awareness training for employees, to name a few — but it’s not stopping there. The Cybersecurity Task Force, convened in 2015, has worked to develop recommendations for how to improve security in multiple areas of government. Qualifying agencies will automatically enter into a cybersecurity liability insurance policy starting in 2017. Idaho is also working on a security strategy for its growing cloud use. In addition, the state has made some high-profile customer service improvements. The new unemployment system, iUS, has replaced an old mainframe system and allowed the state to give claimants faster, fuller access to personal information. Meanwhile, a Department of Transportation project called the Driver Record Dashboard allows employers to quickly look up information about potential drivers, a new case management and e-filing system is set to start replacing judicial paper forms, and several licensing entities have begun digitizing their processes. The Office of the CIO has built a template to allow agencies to easily craft mobile versions of their websites while achieving ADA compliance. In 2015 the state launched a system that allows users to pay multiple government agencies through one account. Internally, centralized IT planning has allowed the state to award multi-vendor contracts that give agencies the ability to order 606.5 megabytes of bandwidth at a reduced cost. And an inter-agency GIS project has led to impressive gains in data-sharing, allowing users in 30 agencies to build more than 1,000 maps. 


Illinois
2016 Grade
: B+
2014 Grade: C+
CIO: Hardik Bhatt
Much has changed since Government Technology gave Illinois a mediocre C+ two years ago. In 2016, Gov. Bruce Rauner established the Department of Innovation and Technology and brought on private-sector information technology veteran Hardik Bhatt to run it. The result has been more consolidation, more collaboration and cost savings. The department has become the central agency responsible for technology at 38 other agencies, and has led efforts to find solutions that work for multiple agencies and perform multiple functions instead of establishing a patchwork quilt of systems. The creation of a portal for enterprise project management has given the state a greater ability to monitor the health of projects, identify priorities and track performance metrics. A CIO council brings together local IT workers in government to collaborate and share ideas. Meanwhile, the state has consolidated 80 percent of its assets and implemented a cloud-first strategy, ensuring that the cloud is the default target for all new solutions. So far only 3 percent of the state’s workloads have gone to the cloud, but Illinois has plans to change that quickly, aiming to put 28 percent of work in the cloud by the end of 2017, and 70 percent the year after. The state has also made a push for VoIP expansion, migrating more than 35,000 centrex lines and achieving a cost savings of $9 per line per month in the process. DoIT is also working to introduce an array of new tools such as instant messaging, email/voicemail integration and Web conferencing. Amid everything, the state has established an Internet of Things Center of Excellence and is canvassing its agencies to identify IoT strategies and projects.


Indiana
2016 Grade
: A-
2014 Grade: B+
CIO: Dewand Neely
IT in Indiana is trending up, moving into the A category with an A- in this year’s survey, up from a B+ in 2014. It calls itself the most data-driven state in the country, pointing to its Management and Performance Hub (MPH) and efforts around reducing infant mortality. New data initiatives target recidivism and getting a handle on the state’s addiction problem. The work of the MPH is getting noticed by other states that have reached out for help getting their own programs off the ground. Illustrating Indiana’s commitment to transparency and accountability, citizens have access to key performance data across 14 agencies and departments in real time. The transparency leadership has put Indiana among the top states in the latest ranking of the U.S. Public Interest Research Group. The state offers 520 online services to citizens, 65 of which were added in the past two years. One agency seeing substantial uptake is the Bureau of Motor Vehicles, with more than 3.5 million online transactions in 2015, up more than 10 percent over last year. Like many other top performing states, Indiana’s stated top priority is cybersecurity. Six related mandates targeted for completion by agencies by the end of 2016 are independent risk assessments, Web app firewall protection, system isolation, updated system security plans, compliance with least privilege and encryption of data at rest in confidential systems. Students from Purdue University are used for tier-one support at the state’s new Security Operations Center, which continues to add capabilities. 

Indiana received special recognition in this year’s survey for its achievements in Finance and Administration. Major upgrades have been made to the state’s Tax Center, including enhanced fraud detection made possible by increased information sharing across agencies, integration of additional data sources and new tools. The effort, which spans the MPH, the IT office, Department of Revenue, Bureau of Motor Vehicles, Family and Social Services Administration, and the Department of Workforce Development, is credited with keeping the state from making more than $100 million in fraudulent payments. 


Iowa
2016 Grade
: B
2014 Grade: B
CIO: Robert von Wolffradt
An updated state government portal is focused on engaging with citizens, including an open data page as well as a directory of government services that has grown from 96 listings in 2012 to 144 today. Another page offers a one-stop shop for citizens to submit public comments on rulemaking procedures, standardizing what used to be an inconsistent system and simplifying the procedures involved. The state’s transportation department has outfitted 900 snowplows with iPhones that provide real-time location info and snap photos of the road every 5 to 10 minutes, all of which is available to both the public and government officials who use it to track conditions. Since the last Digital States assessment, Iowa has extended its court e-filing system to include all courts and case types. Responsible for more than 6 million filings per year, the system has allowed the court system to extend filing deadlines, save users from thousands of miles of travel and provide 24/7 access to information. In 2015, the Office of the CIO launched the LocalGovExchange portal, which allows for quick processing of business property data used to calculate the state’s Business Property Tax Credit. The state has worked to smooth out operations for agencies, including the development of an enterprise content management system for finances due by fiscal year 2017 that has the potential to eliminate 3 million pieces of paper annually. The state has also consolidated the operations of three agencies and folded 22 IT workers into the Office of the CIO. All told, more than 70 percent of agencies have either consolidated IT operations or share services. The state is also migrating 23,000 users from seven different email systems to Gmail, a process it expects to complete by the end of the year.


Kansas
2016 Grade
: C-
2014 Grade: B
CIO: Phil Wittmer
Kansas is headed to the cloud in a significant way, with a statewide email consolidation project in progress that will save money and enhance collaboration between departments that will now utilize a single system. In addition, over the next three to five years, the state wants to transition to shared infrastructure in the Kansas GovCloud, a shared private cloud that will help the Office of IT Services further its goal of a more converged, virtualized environment. Its most recent Summary of Quarterly IT Project Reports, however, indicates that the effort is now on hold, as are plans for needed upgrades to the Kansas Wide Area Information Network. Other initiatives on the horizon include development of an e-citation system, envisioned as a unified electronic repository to share citation information between levels of government and the public, and replacement of legacy mainframe driver’s license systems. Kansas is also a proving ground of sorts for the movement to modernize state Medicaid Management Information Systems (MMIS). A three-year, $215 million effort is now underway to develop a new system using a modular approach — a strategy gaining support over traditional massive multiyear deployments that can feature out-of-date technology when they finally launch. Partner Hewlett Packard Enterprise works with several states on MMIS systems, but Kansas will be the first for the company using the modular approach.  


Kentucky
2016 Grade
: B
2014 Grade: B+
CIO: Jim Barnhart (Acting)
Kentucky maintains solid standing in the areas that count. A partnership between the Finance and Administration Cabinet, the Center for Rural Development, and Shaping Our Appalachian Region targets continued development of state broadband access, while the Kentucky Wired program seeks to connect Eastern Kentucky, a region The New York Times called "the hardest place to live in the United States." An IT consolidation project launched in 2012 is 90 percent complete, the state reports, with more than 1,800 physical servers relocated and 600 converted to virtual machines. A BYOD policy has also been proposed, but not yet cleared. This May, the state announced a contract with Microsoft to move first the executive branch and then the rest of the organization to Office 365. That project, a departure from the cloud-wary Kentucky of years past, is scheduled to be completed during the next two years. A Tier-3 alternative data center maintained by the state allows for $1 million in disaster recovery savings that would have otherwise been spent on a vendor contract. Gov. Matt Bevin's strong emphasis on balancing the budget and supporting education doesn't leave a wide berth for new technology initiatives, but Kentucky still managed a few in recent memory, including an upgrade to state Web portals such as the Cabinet for Health & Family Services' (CHFS) new self-service benefits portal and the CHFS Department for Community Based Services' foster care and adoption portal.


Louisiana
2016 Grade
: C+ 
2014 Grade: B 
CIO: Dickie Howze
Louisiana staggered back half a step this survey from a good grade in 2012 and 2014 (B) to the realm of Charlie Brown and his undying mediocrity (C+). With the budget deficit absorbing much of the administration's attention, Louisiana seems now to be recuperating and may find itself better positioned to innovate technologically in the coming years. Most recently, a consolidation of the state's federated IT services now provides its customers more than 85 services ranging from managed servers, storage, database and software solutions. This expansive consolidation is being used by the state as a framework for shared services across the executive branch, to enable a more nimble IT workforce that can switch between projects based on demand, and has already saved about $75 million. The state also recently completed a federally funded five-year broadband program that focused on bringing more connectivity to rural communities. Citizen-facing apps like Louisiana Traveler Information, MyDOTD, Eat Safe Louisiana and GeauxVote demonstrate an interest in service delivery, though the projects are overshadowed by more enthusiastic efforts by other states. Upcoming projects may prove to turn things around for Louisiana. A dedication of $65 million will fuel a modernization of Louisiana Medicaid's Eligibility and Enrollment program and the creation of an enterprise architecture program during the next two years. The state IT office, which has not traditionally monitored cybersecurity at the enterprise level, expects to establish a dedicated cybersecurity team next year. An enhanced commercial drivers' license monitoring system was scheduled to begin work this June. And the state's open data portal, LaTrac, is expected to receive a facelift in the coming months.


Maine
2016 Grade
: B 
2014 Grade: B 
CIO: Jim Smith
If the survey included awards for ambition, Maine would be a front-runner. The tiny state packs a surprising number of technology projects into its budget, including several at the vanguard of innovation, such as an agile development process and smart business process management. A data warehousing pilot in the public cloud demonstrates a desire from Maine's IT office to optimize service delivery, while a comprehensive workforce development strategy ensures the state will be well positioned for the future. New incentives for workers, personalized skills training, intern surveys and a TechNight that invites local high school students all create new inroads for workforce enhancement. Maine Gov. Paul LePage's platform of job creation, welfare reform, reduced taxes and improved efficiency are backed by IT in the form of a job portal, a welfare prescreening eligibility portal and Maine Open Checkbook. The state's aphorism of "build once, use many times" supports a broader enterprise strategy that includes the promotion of agile development, legacy system modernization, risk management, the aforementioned workforce innovation and business process management. The state put more than 3,000 training hours into agile methodology last year, and all new IT projects use some form of iterative development. Early results from new business process management yield 20 percent efficiency gains, according to the state. One example is the Board of Pesticides Control’s Maine Pesticide, Enforcement, Regulation and Licensing System, which now automates several previously manual-only processes and relieves bottlenecks in the workflow. Maine’s independently run ConnectME Authority has continued to increase broadband access in rural areas, and the state now enjoys near-universal access to the tune of 91 percent availability. A rigorous security certification process secures all devices, software and physical assets across the organization. And the Maine Department of Transportation's ambitions of stronger data governance and data-driven decision-making bode well for the state's future. A real-time data sync between the tablet computers used by bridge inspectors and the state's back-end systems reduced the inspection review and approval process from about five months to one week.


Maryland
2016 Grade
: B
2014 Grade: B
CIO: David Garcia
The gubernatorial administration of Maryland has, for information technology purposes, become one big enterprise — but that enterprise is quickly expanding. In the past year, the number of agencies with IT consolidated into the enterprise has grown from six to 18. By the end of 2016, the Department of IT (DoIT) expects that number to grow to 25 agencies with 10,000 employees. The enterprise manages end-user computing, hosting, Amazon-based cloud services, application development and infrastructure management, along with a peripheral cybersecurity monitoring system that works for organizations both inside and outside the enterprise. The accretion of services has allowed DoIT to reduce its cybersecurity risk by eliminating servers that could serve as attack targets, all while tailoring security solutions to individual agencies. The state also has a failover protocol to ensure that operations continue should one of its centralized servers shut down. As it consolidates operations, the department is deploying a single IT service center to help both customers and constituents. Another area undergoing centralization is health and human services — the state’s MDTHINK project is moving to bring together all of Maryland’s human services into an integrated operation that allows agencies to better coordinate services and work faster. Meanwhile, Maryland has continued to make strides on its citizen-facing Web portal, establishing a Central Business Licensing and Registration operation that aims to provide a one-stop shop for new commercial entities. The four-step process uses universal business data to auto-populate forms that ask for the same information, cutting down on redundancies and simplifying the process for entrepreneurs who might not know how to navigate the system. As a result, the time it takes to move on a filing has dropped from 10 weeks to two days. In the future, Maryland will complete the build-out of its statewide Public Safety Communications System, implement a text-to-911 system and launch a dashboard offering agencies’ performance metrics to policymakers.


Massachusetts
2016 Grade
: B
2014 Grade: B-
CIO: Mark Nunnelly
Massachusetts got a bit of a bump in this year’s survey, up from a B- in 2014. Technology was specifically cited as a top five priority by Gov. Charlie Baker, who participated in a recent employee-facing IT Town Hall alongside state CIO Mark Nunnelly. Concrete goals include a desire to improve the citizen experience online, where engagement is high but satisfaction is currently low, according to the state. Significant investments are being pointed at several key IT systems: more than $31 million for things like core infrastructure and public-facing online services; upward of $36 million to modernize tech at the Department of Revenue and the Registry of Motor Vehicles; and $6 million for various IT upgrades at the Attorney General’s, Auditor’s and Treasurer’s offices. The state’s ePLACE site has evolved into an enterprisewide portal where citizens, businesses and employees can access a variety of services, like permits, licenses and certificates. Planned upgrades include a "wizard" to help visitors get through the site and give them access to a unified payment option. Cybersecurity is also getting a lot of attention in Massachusetts, as the state calls on best practices defined by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, using the cyberhygiene services in its patch and vulnerability program. In addition, Massachusetts has adopted the Cyber Security and Risk Management framework from NIST, and will evaluate all critical systems against it in the coming fiscal year.  


Michigan
2016 Grade
: A  
2014 Grade: A
CIO: David Behen
Placing in the top of the Digital States class for the last four surveys, Michigan’s A grade reflects the state’s well rounded approach to IT and efforts to continuously improve processes and initiatives through the use of technology. In 2015 Gov. Rick Snyder announced the River of Opportunity plan to reorganize how government does business from the public’s perspective. This program led IT leaders to reconsider how data could be integrated across programs and agencies to provide a better picture of the state’s customers. Numerous efforts are underway to continue updating Michigan's systems and encouraging transparency: a three-year ERP modernization effort will touch all state agencies and create standardized data processes; an enterprise investment management process scores IT projects on factors like expected benefits; and performance benchmarking of agencies is made public with scorecards. In addition, spending data is available on the financial transparency portal, which received an A+ grade from U.S. PIRG’s ranking of state spending websites. Digital States judges noted the implementation of an Enterprise Fraud Detection system in 2015 that uses more than 20 data sources to identify potential attempts to defraud the Unemployment Insurance Agency and Department of Health and Human Services. Michigan was also a finalist in the 2016 Best of the Web competition — its portal stood out for its interface and easy navigation to and from secondary pages and most agency websites. The state also addresses cybersecurity proactively — it blocked an average of 1.9 million cyberattacks daily in the first four months of 2016 — through numerous efforts including the Cyber Initiative and Cyber Disruption Response Plan.


Minnesota
2016 Grade
: B+ 
2014 Grade: B+
CIO: Tom Baden
Minnesota’s No. 1 priority when it comes to IT is the development of a strategic cybersecurity plan, with executive support evidenced by Gov. Mark Dayton’s $46 million 2016 budget request. In addition to security upgrades at key agencies, the IT office has developed a Breach Response and Notification manual that aligns with the NIST framework to define roles in the event of a breach and encourage agency-level preparation. The IT agency, MN.IT, also tests preparedness with tabletop events aimed at agency partners. Planning for the Internet of Things is driving some of the security conversation, as the state positions itself to securely manage its ever-growing data inventory. The state has some impressive stats to back up its commitment to a smaller footprint, reducing its data center count from 49 to 29 in the past two years and virtualizing 80 percent of its servers. Minnesota's move toward a hybrid cloud model will allow it to make the most of existing infrastructure while shifting to as-a-service options on a case-by-case basis when the benefits justify the switch. Another significant accomplishment from Minnesota since the last survey is its GenTax integrated tax system, which brings together all tax functions and offers Web-based filing and processing services for citizens. An online audit room enables taxpayers to interact and share information directly with auditors. The audit room’s first iteration used an off-the-shelf product, but additional functionality is being added continuously using in-house teams. The state has upped its transparency game too, adding an Open Checkbook feature to its website to expose detailed financial information. 


Mississippi
2016 Grade
: B 
2014 Grade: B
CIO: Craig Orgeron
The Magnolia State has held steady for three surveys running, receiving a solid B grade this year, and in 2014 and 2012. Not only did the Mississippi state portal take fifth place in this year’s Best of the Web competition, but the Mississippi Automated Revenue System — which completed its five-year rollout in 2015 — also saved more than $22 million by proactively identifying fraudulent refunds. Furthering its efforts in fraud prevention, Mississippi led a five-state consortium that established the National Accuracy Clearinghouse, which uses advanced linking technology and identity analytics to detect whether Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) applicants are receiving benefits in another state. Implementing and using this clearinghouse resulted in a 95 percent success rate in preventing dual SNAP participation. And when it comes to other health and human services initiatives, Mississippi partnered with the University of Mississippi Medical Center to give Medicaid patients’ electronic medical history to physicians in real time, making it the first state to do so successfully. Also of note is the state’s Electronic Government and Oversight Committee, which has overseen the implementation of payment processing for state agencies and the redesign of the portal interface, to name just a few. This committee’s governance model is referenced frequently by other states, much like the Mississippi Department of Transportation’s (MDOT’s) Outdoor Advertising Control System, developed for efficient management of billboards. The billboard management software is distributed to other states by the American Association of Highway Transportation Officials, which has a licensing agreement with MDOT.


Missouri
2016 Grade
: A 
2014 Grade: A
CIO: Rich Kliethermes
Maintaining an A grade rating isn’t easy, but Missouri has managed to do it, thanks to its focus on fundamentals while continuing to innovate with advances in technology. The state made a significant adjustment to its cybersecurity investments, increasing them by 25 percent two years in a row. Part of that investment includes a robust awareness training program for its employees. In 2015, the state received a cybersecurity excellence award from the National Cybersecurity Summit. The use of cloud computing continues to grow as the state rolls out both public and private cloud services for its agencies. By setting proper standards and practicing good governance, Missouri is reaping positive ROI on its IT investments, including the state’s data center, where server and storage costs have been mitigated and with telepresence technology that has reduced state travel costs. In the wake of the Ferguson riots, the state’s IT consolidation program was a boon to public safety when it was needed. From social media to interoperable handheld radio devices, the state was able to respond to the emergency in a cohesive manner. As for innovation, the state is using advanced analytics to reduce the likelihood of tax fraud. So far the effort is paying dividends, with more than $11 million in denied refunds for fraudulent claims. Missouri has also implemented an e-filing platform in its court system, which has reduced the time it takes to process court filings, while making it easier for individuals to make court payments; at the same time, the new system has reduced overhead costs as well.

The state was honored in this year's survey for initiatives in the areas of public safety, emergency management, criminal justice and corrections. Recent projects include the replacement of a 10-year-old fingerprint identification system for the Highway Patrol that can search photos and irises in addition to fingerprints, and the Corrections Department is working with a consortium of states to share the cost of replacing legacy offender management systems.


Montana
2016 Grade
: B- 
2014 Grade: B
CIO: Ron Baldwin
Though Montana slipped half a grade in this year’s survey, political and IT leaders have continued to make technology a top priority. In May, Gov. Steve Bullock issued an executive order to implement the State Information Technology Convergence Plan, which declares that it is a state IT strategic goal “to build and operate enterprise systems that are shared across state and local government,” including executive branch agencies. By sharing services, the state will save approximately $1.5 million per year, and maximize the protection of Montana’s data and systems. Furthering cybersecurity efforts, Bullock also issued an executive order that creates the Montana Information Security Advisory Council, whose goal is to advise the governor about a statewide strategic information security program. The council also has developed a cybersecurity dashboard to keep the governor’s office updated on such trends and issues. And as far as health and human services, Montana has made significant progress in automating eligibility determination for recipients of Medicaid, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The state’s self-service portal allows recipients to complete applications online, report changes, check benefits, upload required documents and view case details. Taking things even further, on June 4, Montana implemented its new real-time online determination process for certain Medicaid applications. 


Nebraska
2016 Grade
: B 
2014 Grade: B
CIO: Ed Toner
Having strong support for IT at the top goes a long way in getting things done, and Nebraska is no exception. Gov. Pete Ricketts, who was inaugurated Jan. 8, 2015, has made technology a priority. Ricketts established five priorities for Nebraska state government, and technology is either at the heart of or plays a role in each one. To create a more efficient and effective state government, for instance, the state has turned to consolidation in many forms; it has consolidated 90 county physical servers to two virtual servers located in the state-level data center in Lincoln, and replicated in real time to two active servers in the state data center in Omaha. This elimination of 86 physical servers is saving the state $500,000 per year in maintenance costs. Also of note is the state’s telecommunications network — Network Nebraska — established in the late 1990s by the state and the University of Nebraska system that now serves more than 400,000 students daily, and has seen a 99 percent decrease in network costs over the past eight years. When it comes to cybersecurity, a policy lists rules and guidelines that agencies and external partners must abide by if they want to do business with the state. And making it easier for Nebraskans to vote in this year’s general election is the Nebraska Online Voter Registration application, which the Secretary of State Elections Division launched on Sept. 22, 2015 — National Voter Registration Day. The interactive, secure system collects users' information and then validates it with the Nebraska Department of Motor Vehicles. According to the state, adoption surpassed 31,000 registrants in time for the primary election, and officials expect continued growth as the November election nears.


Nevada
2016 Grade
: C+ 
2014 Grade: C
CIO: Shannon Rahming
After receiving a C grade in both the 2012 and 2014 Digital States Survey, Nevada has received a slight bump this year, which is no doubt due to its commitment to virtualization, consolidation, and being open and transparent. Case in point: The state’s Open and Transparent Government website, which serves as a one-stop shop that makes it easier for citizens to find open information, including a number of other Nevada sites that provide varying levels of financial information such as the state tax expenditure report. Perhaps more interesting, however, is the Nevada P-20 to Workforce Research Data System, a research tool that gives residents access to information that offers understanding of the trends that shape the state's education and workforce policies and initiatives. The system is a collaboration among the Nevada Department of Education, the Nevada System of Higher Education, the Nevada Department of Employment, Training and Rehabilitation, and the nonprofit Center for Innovative Technology.


New Hampshire 
2016 Grade: B- 
2014 Grade: C
CIO: Denis Goulet
New Hampshire has put time and effort into expanding online access for businesses and citizens while reorganizing its key IT systems into a more centralized operation with fewer data centers and more enterprise applications (with more on the way). For example, an off-the-shelf ERP system and email are centralized. A statewide fiber network managed by the University System of New Hampshire supports education institutions, and the state Education Department is working with public and private entities to leverage the FCC's E-rate program to increase broadband access for K-12 students. The state has a well developed public safety IT system with investments in GIS and eCourt technology. It also has become a lead participant in FirstNet, the nationwide wireless voice and data network for first responders. New call center technology, developed using lean methodology, for the Department of Motor Vehicles’ service center has paid off with customer satisfaction rising from a dismal 8.3 percent satisfaction rating to more than 80 percent in six years. In addition, the state is working on an initiative to standardize the publishing and reporting of performance metrics across agencies to simplify the process and how the information is viewed by the public. Efforts are also underway to update the state's IT strategic plan, which will include enhancing its security posture, improving services to citizens and building mature IT governance processes.


New Jersey
2016 Grade
: C+ 
2014 Grade: B-
CIO: Dave Weinstein
New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie in June created a Cabinet-level position for information technology. This is the first time the state has had a dedicated chief technology officer. The new leadership position comes as the state continues to modernize IT systems and operations. Efforts include replacing aging mainframes, stabilizing the state’s data center, reducing the number of servers by 50 percent and developing a more comprehensive cloud computing strategy that includes public, private and hybrid cloud services for state agencies. The state has overhauled what was known as the Garden State Network and has implemented a more robust infrastructure known as the Next Generation Services Network, which increases bandwidth while improving network performance, availability and security.  New Jersey has created a somewhat unique, collaborative cybersecurity framework known as the New Jersey Cybersecurity Communications and Integration Cell. The cell acts as a central hub for cybersecurity information sharing between the state and local entities, as well as provides real-time situational awareness between the public and private sector.  Other accomplishments include NJSTART, the state’s e-procurement portal; a collaborative system for analytics; and the use of responsive design to allow for the use of mobile devices to interact with the state’s health, social and human services.


New Mexico
2016 Grade
: B- 
2014 Grade: C+
CIO: Darryl Ackley
Gov. Susana Martinez has made economic development and education her top priorities. The state’s Department of Information Technology has aligned IT with the governor’s policies, especially in the area of education, with a $50 million, five-year broadband deficiencies correction program that will deliver a mandated 1 Mbps per student by 2018. Transparency has been another key focus, and a new level of fiscal openness has been made possible through updates to the ERP to be consistent with the state's treasury. The success of this change is driving forward an initiative to modernize business practices across all state agencies. New Mexico is one of five early builder pilot projects that are working on FirstNet technology to provide lessons learned and considerations for the nationwide public safety broadband network. The state has found the network to be beneficial so far, having used it during major events like the State Fair. Another key project is the ongoing work to create a one-stop business portal to create a more streamlined process across the many state agencies a business owner will likely need to work with. Other highlights include consolidating 75 percent of the state’s IT infrastructure and upgrading the state’s digital microwave network, which is used to handle public safety communications across New Mexico’s vast areas. 


New York
2016 Grade
: B 
2014 Grade: B
CIO: Maggie Miller
New York has been working to bring together its more than 50 tech agencies into the Office of Information Technology Services (ITS) since a commission determined in a 2013 report that the state could save $1.6 billion through consolidation and modernization. The new agency uses the approach of “build once, reuse often” and has since deployed a single email platform for all state employees, consolidated dozens of networks as part of the uniteNY project, consolidated more than 20 data centers and is in the process of working on a single-sign-on capability for customers. Gov. Andrew Cuomo launched an ambitious broadband initiative, called the New NY Broadband Fund, committing $500 million to get high-speed Internet access to all residents by the end of 2018. A performance management program has identified measures tied to strategic goals that help ITS report on efficiency and customer satisfaction with the goal of reducing costs and improving services. And in an effort to change the way taxpayers interact with the state, the Tax Online Services system provides access to more than 80 apps and services via a Web platform. More than 3 million taxpayers have active accounts with the system. Cybersecurity is approached proactively through efforts like an annual cybersecurity event, regional cyberincident response teams and a Cyber Analysis Unit that monitors threats. Additional initiatives include: revamping the DMV system, creating a one-stop portal for business permitting and licensing, and developing numerous mobile apps to help connect New Yorkers with pertinent information.


North Carolina
2016 Grade
: B+ 
2014 Grade: C+
CIO: Keith Werner
Moving up a full letter grade from the 2014 survey, North Carolina is expanding its innovation efforts through programs like the Innovation Center where agencies can test tech, and taking a wide view of the Internet of Things by not only exploring its uses in different public settings, but also helping local governments find ways to implement it. In 2015, Gov. Pat McCrory established the Department of Information Technology to centralize IT operations and governance. The cabinet-level agency has since migrated users to Microsoft Office 365, and the state CIO created an Enterprise Project Management Office to be responsible for IT strategy and compliance. In another reorganization effort, the Government Data Analytics Center was moved into the IT office in 2014. Its programs include working with the Criminal Justice Data Law Enforcement System to deliver information from numerous sources in one place to provide more complete information about an offender. A Broadband Infrastructure Office established last year acts as a statewide resource for connectivity initiatives and aligns the need to expand access with FirstNet public safety network planning. The state’s portal has been redesigned over the last year to present services with a user-focused approach. A "persona-driven methodology" features 12 service categories on the home page to aid navigation of the site.


North Dakota
2016 Grade
: A- 
2014 Grade: B+
CIO: Mike Ressler
North Dakota has a heavily centralized IT operation, which is reflected in the state’s consolidated infrastructure and networking. Keeping with its centralized approach to IT, the state has made cloud computing a top priority, although it prefers a selective strategy rather than a blanket cloud-first approach. Examples include office productivity tools in the cloud for K-12 and higher education, GIS cloud services and a cloud application broker service. Consolidation has resulted in a state network for K-12, some 911 services and VoIP. The state has a self-service portal known as SPACES for its Medicaid program. When it comes to innovation and collaboration, the state has launched an online tax revenue management system, known as the Taxpayer Access Point, in which citizens and businesses can manage their tax payments online. 


Ohio
2016 Grade
: A 
2014 Grade: A-
CIO: Stu Davis
Ohio solidified its status as an A state in this year’s survey, making even more improvements over the last two years through its IT Optimization Strategy. In addition to increasing efficiencies, improving service, reducing complexity and realizing savings, the strategy also helped the state to rework IT spending in the current budget from 80 percent infrastructure and 20 percent application-focused to a 50/50 split between the two. This strategy also helped the State of Ohio Computer Center (SOCC) earn recognition as one of the top 10 data centers in the country; prior to consolidation, 26 agencies managed their own IT environments in more than 32 data centers while the SOCC managed 675 server environments. Now the SOCC manages 5,500, and managing hardware in this virtual shared environment is bringing efficiency gains of 860 percent. Ohio also has established mobile-first and cloud-first strategies that encourage enterprise development in these areas (when appropriate) to help expedite the path from development to implementation. The second and third floors of the SOCC are home to Ohio’s Private Cloud, and several of the state’s enterprise services are now cloud-based or a mixture of cloud and on premise. In addition, Ohio’s acceleration of its IT Optimization Strategy and all that comes with it will drive the state's approach to the Internet of Things, as is already evidenced by the Department of Transportation’s (ODOT’s) placement of traffic and weather sensors that provide real-time information on the state's OHGO app. The sensors also give ODOT employees information on road conditions to help guide maintenance efforts. Ohio also aims to be a leader in drone research and has been recognized for its relationship with the Ohio/Indiana Unmanned Aircraft Systems Center.


Oklahoma
2016 Grade
: B- 
2014 Grade: C
CIO: Bo Reese
One of Gov. Mary Fallin’s five priority areas, effective services and accountable government, is a driving force behind changes to Oklahoma’s IT structure. Oklahoma has been consolidating its IT since 2011, with the Office of Management and Enterprise Services (OMES) working to increase the efficiency of the state’s tech services. As of June, 85 agencies have been unified and consolidated into the state data center, with 35 more agencies to come. A webinar outlining daily operations and intel briefings aims to keep the Information Services leadership up-to-date, and this online meeting will be expanded to include all staff members in fiscal 2017 to increase collaboration and transparency. Last year the state began working with wireless WAN for remote sites, and it plans to look at wireless mesh for IoT applications and a pilot study to provide broadband to the homes of K-12 students who receive free or discounted lunches. On the topic of security, Oklahoma developed the CyberWarn network monitoring system to help protect digital assets in real time. To streamline processes of the 53 agencies that provide 1,481 license types, the state launched a commercial-off-the-shelf system to support a one-stop shop for business registration and professional licensing. A single-sign on expedites and simplifies the user experience.


Oregon
2016 Grade
: B 
2014 Grade: B
CIO: Alex Pettit
Oregon has once again done its citizens proud through its continued commitment to technology advances in state government. The largest undertaking by CIO Alex Pettit has been the implementation of the Enterprise Information Resource Management Strategy (PDF), which for the first time united all of state IT departments on the same page. Strategic IT governance aims to ensure accountability, support IT projects, and reduce duplication, fragmentation and inefficient deployment of IT resources. Going along with the theme of consolidation and centralization, a vendor management strategy is in the works. The current plan is to establish a strategic sourcing group to evaluate vendor performance, manage vendor concerns, manage risks and research potential cost-savings measures with new vendors. A new Strategic Technology Office will support IT projects in the state that cost more than $1 million by having the CIO's office evaluate their effectiveness and efficiency throughout the project's lifecycle. And in the area of government transparency, U.S. PIRG gave Oregon an A+ grade for its open government portal, and changes were made to the ethics filing system to allow the public to search lobbyist filing and expenditure information. 


Pennsylvania
2016
Grade: B+ 
2014 Grade: A-
CIO: John MacMillan
Since Tom Wolf took the gubernatorial reins in January 2015, he has made technology a driving force behind his efforts to not only increase openness, transparency and accountability, but also improve citizen engagement and service delivery. It’s clear the administration and IT staff are working to maintain the pioneering spirit that in 2014, led to the state’s seven-year, $681 million hybrid cloud-services agreement. In 2016 alone, Pennsylvania has launched an open data portal and unveiled a redesigned state website. It’s also created a task force to prepare for the arrival of self-driving vehicles. And in a concerted effort to help curb the opioid drug crisis, the state launched a statewide drug monitoring program that collects certain prescription data and stores it in a database. As far as back-end efficiency, Wolf created the Governor’s Office of Transformation, Innovation, Management and Efficiency (GO-TIME) and Office of Data and Digital Technology (ODDT) to support his initiatives. The Office of Information Technology works closely with these offices, all of which share a common project portfolio management tool and work collaboratively to ensure new project requests align with the governor’s priorities. Currently the state is managing 148 IT projects, 35 ODDT projects and 254 GO-TIME projects. To date, GO-TIME has identified more than 200 projects either planned or already underway by agencies that are projected to save more than $500 million by 2020. Since Gov. Wolf has taken office, the commonwealth already has reached 30 percent of the goal.


Rhode Island
2016 Grade
: C 
2014 Grade: C
CIO: Chris Antonellis
A major overhaul of the state website in May 2016 helped Rhode Island place as a finalist in the 2016 Best of the Web Awards. The site has been optimized for mobile users and outfitted with 150 online services for the state’s residents and businesses. Throughout most of 2016, Rhode Island has focused on releasing its Unified Health Infrastructure Project. Originally slated to help citizens apply for health insurance under the Affordable Care Act, the project grew to become the largest IT project in state history. The system's Sept. 13 launch did not go as smoothly as some had hoped; though union representatives called the system an "absolute mess," state officials noted that setbacks in a project of this magnitude are not completely unexpected. The system serves 100,000 residents plus small business owners, is integrated with federal and other state social service programs and includes wellness components to help reduce healthcare costs.  The state hired its first Chief Innovation Officer Richard Culatta earlier this year, fresh from his post at the U.S. Department of Education. Culatta will likely take an active role in Gov. Gina Raimondo's collaborative initiative to ramp up computer science education in Rhode Island schools. 


South Carolina
2016 Grade
: B- 
2014 Grade: C+
CIO: Keith Osman
The underlying operational model that has driven South Carolina’s entire ICT strategic plan is that of shared services. Demonstrated through the release of the Statewide Strategic IT Plan (PDF) shared services and centralization of state IT services is seen as both a cost-cutting measure and a way to simplify infrastructure and deliver better service to citizens. This bucks a long tradition of decentralization, which caused resource duplication and the excessive proliferation of data centers. The plan outlines five broad goals: Advance Information security and accessibility; improve reliability of state systems; evolve citizen access to government systems; institute data-driven decision making; and lead in technology innovation. Early benefits from the new structure are already being felt. The rollout of the SC Enterprise Information System (SCEIS), the state’s enterprise resource planning system, is one of the most successful examples of the standardization. SCEIS has made more than 70 state agencies business processes uniform. The system provides modules for finance, materials management and human resources/payroll.

On the flip side of state IT centralization, Gov. Nikki Haley has also opened up several traditionally single-vendor broadband and wireless operations to competition. The state’s enterprisewide area network has switched from a single-vendor to a multi-vendor system, helping cut costs and optimize performance. Layer 2 Ethernet service and other network services have also been made into multiple vendor services. A multi-vendor contract for hosted Voice over Internet Protocol, Unified Communications and Collaboration Tools services was awarded in 2015. 


South Dakota
2016 Grade
: B- 
2014 Grade: B-
CIO: David Zolnowsky
South Dakota has maintained B- since the last state survey in 2014. In South Dakota, technology is viewed as a tool, rather than a means of driving policy — though it is recognized that the two worlds often intersect. In 2014, Gov. Dennis Daugaard called for the creation of a single-point citizen access portal for South Dakota's many boards and commissions. The state also took steps toward implementing a driver’s license application to allow citizens to make appointments at testing stations, submit paperwork for renewals and renew online. The successful project has prompted the Department of Revenue to request a similar tool for the vehicle registration system. The registration project was initiated in June 2016 and is expected to be completed by July 2018. In regard to the tools in the hands of employees, the state has enacted a bring-your-own-device policy to better manage the tools being used by staff. A mobile device management application allows controls and oversight. In addition to other initiatives underway, South Dakota also is working to expand its already-impressive public safety radio system. All public safety agencies and departments are already able to communicate via the systems, but access to federal grant funds has allowed for almost 20 more radio towers to be built. The SAVIN system, a Department of Corrections application that alerts victims to information regarding their victimizer, was announced in May 2016. The Comprehensive Offender Management System provides data and operational support for adult corrections facilities and the inmates they manage. In regard to education, the state has implemented a longitudinal data system to provide data insights into trends in the K-12 public education system.


Tennessee
2016 Grade
: B+ 
2014 Grade: B+
CIO: Mark Bengel
Tennessee has held fast at a B+ rating since 2014. In 2015, Tennessee launched an IT transformation initiative focused on consolidating and maturing the state’s technology services across the jurisdiction. Through the statewide IT agency, Strategic Technology Solutions, a “pay-as-you-use” storage solution is offered to agencies, and has cut state costs by 50 percent. The Alternative Workspace Solution initiative is allowing more flexibility for state workers to work remotely. Online learning also has a place in state government in Tennessee. An enterprisewide offering of tools also allows staff to update skills in accordance with their agency’s particular goals and priorities. This allows for better agency/employee alignment across the enterprise. A statewide business intelligence platform offers better access to spending and procurement information. As for public safety, the state’s Department of Safety and Homeland Security is using predictive analytics to determine where accidents are likely to happen on state highways. Similarly the Tennessee Bureau of Investigations is in the beginning stages of using analytics to paint a more insightful picture of crime in the state. When it comes to the IT workforce shortage, the state is a taking a proactive approach to recruitment and retention with the IT Academy, which is geared toward teaching state personnel the skills and abilities needed to maintain modern IT systems.


Texas
2016 Grade
: B 
2014 Grade: B
CIO: Todd Kimbriel
Faced with a growing population and the typical budgetary constraints of government, Texas has forged a path to better IT through creative thinking and innovation. The state’s cooperative contracting for telecommunications and state portals saved nearly $200 million during the 2015 fiscal year, and the Department of Information Resources (DIR) is also working to improve business practices through analytics. The Business Analytics Pilot is being conducted with five volunteer agencies and a legacy modernization application framework. The findings are due to the Legislature in fall 2016. In the vein of being better stewards of taxpayer dollars, TxSmartBuy 2.0 was launched by the state comptroller's office to enhance performance and transparency into state procurement activities. The TxMap Project is part of a public safety initiative to provide better operating data during evacuations and emergencies. The project leverages more than 500 data sources and can provide valuable insights to first responders in large- and small-scale events.


Utah
2016 Grade
: A 
2014 Grade: A
CIO: Mike Hussey
Digital leadership is evident throughout the enterprise in the state of Utah. Its overall emphasis on using technology to make government as lean and effective as it can is proven by the fact that its workforce is smaller today than it was in 2002, and its population has grown by 29 percent in the same period. Foremost on the agenda of Utah Gov. Gary Herbert is education, with almost two-thirds of the budget destined for related initiatives, like online student testing and teacher credentialing, a growing number of student computing devices, a statewide educational data system, and a STEM Action Center. Results include a 9 percent increase in graduation rates over the past five years. Utah’s fully consolidated IT environment is managed centrally, with most systems running on a private cloud. The state also boasts impressive broadband coverage, as 95 percent of households can access speeds of at least 25 Mbps. Its focus on cybersecurity, adding things like ransomware protections and encryption of private data at rest and in transit, contribute to a reduction in risk of more than 90 percent in the past three years. 

Awarded special recognition by judges for achievements in citizen engagement (including open/transparent operations, online presence, mobile and social media leadership), the Department of Technology Services now provides transparency into IT project performance, reporting that as of June 2016, 210 out of 220 active projects achieved both schedule and budget goals. Now offering numerous publicly available data dashboards, Utah was the first state to prioritize financial transparency with a public portal. A new open data site launched last year on the Socrata platform offers more than 2,000 data sets in a number of formats, every one of which includes a built-in API. And that data is being consumed: 6.5 million page views were counted in the first 17 months. A unified Open Records Portal allows the public to ask for records from upward of 1,100 agencies in one place. 

Utah’s leading transportation efforts were also called out as a best practice by survey judges, with many programs worthy of broader adoption. In December 2015, the state DOT added GPS technology to more than 500 state vehicles to optimize fleet management and connect the public with real-time data about how snowplows are likely to impact their travel plans. The agency also wrote a program to track automated traffic signal performance that has since been used by agencies in several other states. In addition, Utah’s sensor- and camera-based intelligent transportation system is credited with more than $100 million in annual savings on an ongoing basis. 


Vermont
2016 Grade
: B- 
2014 Grade: B-
CIO: Richard Boes
In 2014 Vermont earned a B- for its IT initiatives and services, and in 2016 the state takes home the same. To maintain the grade, Vermont has produced an array of IT programs and development projects over the last two years. One of these is the Vermont Justice Information Sharing System. The Department of Public Safety manages the platform, which operates as a vehicle to integrate data from computer-aided dispatch systems and records management systems throughout the state. Law enforcement users now have access to a variety of records that include incident data, lists of current infractions and court case details. Vermont is one of the first states in the nation to combine this high-value criminal justice information together. Further, the state is investing in transparency by inviting the State Police to participate in the White House’s Police Data Initiative, a national project to build trust between citizens and officers, while at the same time increasing accountability. Moreover, Vermont’s IT strategy focuses heavily on transportation. The state participates as a member in New England 511, a system that centralizes traffic data from New England states. As part of this, Vermont can serve its citizens with an Automated Traffic Management System to organize and interpret a diverse set of transit and traffic data. Further, the state is modernizing its tax management software with a cloud-based system for the Department of Taxes — from efficiencies, cost savings and enhanced tax revenue collection, the state estimates it will generate $36 million from fiscal years 2014 to 2023.


Virginia
2016 Grad
e: A 
2014 Grade: A-
CIO: Nelson Moe
Virginia’s grade has continually inched up in the Digital States Survey, receiving an A this year, A- in 2014 and B+ in 2012. The state was named a best practice leader in the area of health and human services for its exceptional use of IT to support numerous policies and programs. For example, a new Medicaid case management system replaced a legacy mainframe and has processed more than 900,000 Medicaid applications since October 2014. The Virginia Hospital Alerting and Status System also streamlines services by integrating with emergency systems to transmit reports, eliminating the previous multistep process. Cybersecurity continues to be a unifying topic in the state, which was the first to adopt the NIST Framework, and in June became an information sharing and analysis organization. An online performance management system, Virginia Performs, has added tools for tracking the governor’s enterprise strategic priorities, which can also be viewed in graphs. In addition, the state’s eVA procurement portal aims to provide transparency into past, current and future contracts and uses metrics to summarize the data. The platform is leveraged statewide: More than 700 local government entities use it for free. To support more than 280 agencies and higher education institutions, a new enterprise financial system went live in February, replacing numerous individual systems, some of which were more than 30 years old. In the first month, the system, called Cardinal, processed 36,800 deposits and 6,000 expense reports. 


Washington
2016 Grade: A- 
2014 Grade: B+
CIO: Michael Cockrill
With a wealth of IT projects and programs, Washington lifted its B+ grade in 2014 to an A- this year. The work the state has done to fine-tune and regiment its cybersecurity alert systems is exceptional. Beyond a spate of educational and collaborative duties, in 2015 Washington’s Office of Cyber Security reviewed 235 systems for compliance, its Security Operations Center provided 736 security alerts to agencies, and the Computer Emergency Readiness Team performed security incident response efforts for 35 cases in 2015 — each case representing a serious threat. Another standout achievement is the state’s efforts to educate business owners of regulatory standards and provide a simple path for transactions and  compliance. This year business license renewals filed through the state’s online platform represented 92.6 percent, while the percentage of new business licenses applied for online stood at 82.8 percent. A live chat feature complements this work with ready advice for business owners trying to get tax filing information. Statistics from the service show that 95.7 percent of the almost 22,000 chats were able to answer questions in less than 60 seconds. State officials have supported this economic development work by creating another Web platform called the Washington BusinessHub that provides a “one-stop resource for starting and operating a business.” Another of Washington’s impressive feats was its ability to collaborate to implement the Affordable Care Act. The Health Benefits Exchange, Department of Social and Health Services, and Health Care Authority took on a joint effort to maintain and augment the use of HealthPlanFinder, the platform that helps citizens enroll in health-care coverage. In an annual review after its first year in use in 2014, the tool cut the total percentage of uninsured residents by nearly half, from about 14 percent to roughly 8 percent, and as June 2016, Washington officials say that more than 1.6 million state residents had access to health care thanks to the platform. Notable accomplishments also consisted of a database that mapped more than 530 trailheads and 12,000 miles of trails, and a joint venture with Harvard Business School that conducted an experiment to assess strengths and weakness within Holacracy, a self-management model for productivity. 


West Virginia
2016 Grade
: B+ 
2014 Grade: B+
CIO: Gale Given
West Virginia has been hit hard economically by the nation’s transition from coal to cleaner-burning energy sources. This revenue loss has impacted budgets across the state, both for agencies and departments as well as private-sector businesses. This has translated into policies and operating budgets that prioritize essential services. West Virginia’s Office of Technology (WVOT) is one of those services, and Gov. Earl Ray Tomblin is not only expecting WVOT to keep the lights on, but also serve as a facilitator in seeding an economic rebound. A primary pillar in this is broadband growth. To enable residents to make a digital transition, West Virginia received a federal grant of $126 million to spread its broadband services across the state, a project it completed in 2015. Now, with a Broadband Development Council steering its uses, West Virginia is promoting online business and educational growth opportunities. Reduced labor costs are also being found by automating services at West Virginia’s Department of Motor Vehicles. The state has developed a mobile-friendly self-service platform to help residents request personalized plates, request officials' driving records and pay driver’s license renewal fees. Year over year DMV transaction growth has exceeded expectations, with the number of transactions in 2016 roughly 85 percent higher than 2015 — a statistic credited to the digital services. Additional innovations have included WV Help, a mobile app that delivers immediate contact information and support resource for those confronting crime, violence and child abuse, and a flood tool gauge to asses flood risk to properties. 


Wisconsin
2016 Grade
: A- 
2014 Grade: B
CIO: David Cagigal
Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker has five policy priorities — economic development, workforce development, education transformation, government reform and infrastructure investment — to which the state’s IT executive steering committee aligns IT investments, strategies and plans. The result is highly effective IT governance that has resulted in major IT overhauls, including the state’s ERP system, known as STAR. The state is on its way to saving an estimated $100 million in the next decade thanks to this key IT implementation. The state is also building an enterprise cybersecurity system to blunt cyberattacks. The relaunch of Wisconsin’s self-funded portal has resulted in 66 new online services and cost avoidance totaling $21 million in development and resource expenses. Data center consolidation has reduced the number of physical servers by 96 percent; improved back-up and storage has saved the state $4.2 million; and, optimized service offerings are now offered to the clients of the Division of Enterprise Technology using its hybrid cloud strategy. The BadgerNet Converged Network is another example of how the state has succeeded in leveraging advances in technology to bring network services to both the state and other government entities, including municipalities, tribal nations and technical colleges. BadgerNet is a flexible, high-capacity video and data network delivering dynamic, scalable bandwidth to more than 1,800 sites statewide. 


Wyoming
2016 Grade: C 
2014 Grade: C
CIO: Flint Waters
Wyoming’s Department of Enterprise Technology Services has assembled a library of coding "blocks" it uses to quickly build applications for agencies, reducing the need to procure outside services and allowing the department to make improvements to individual components of multiple applications in a streamlined way. That means inherent cybersecurity standardization; the codes that form blocks are largely the same from one department to the next. The department is also working on a consistent cybersecurity policy for state, as well as county and local, government agencies. In March the state launched a GIS system called the Natural Resource and Energy Explorer, a Web-based tool that brings together data about Wyoming’s energy, environmental, cultural, socioeconomic and infrastructural assets, with the aim of helping project planners and the general public find location-specific information. After committing to a 100-gigabit statewide network around the time of the last Digital States report in 2014, Wyoming has set up the network and is now offering expanded capacity to schools and state agencies at a reduced rate. Buildout continues on the project. Wyoming has moved two of its data centers to private servers as a first step toward setting up cloud storage capacity.

Colin Wood former staff writer

Colin wrote for Government Technology from 2010 through most of 2016.

Noelle Knell Editor

Government Technology editor Noelle Knell has more than 15 years of writing and editing experience, covering public projects, transportation, business and technology. A California native, she has worked in both state and local government, and is a graduate of the University of California, Davis, with majors in political science and American history. She can be reached via email and on Twitter.

Elaine Pittman Former Managing Editor

Elaine Pittman worked for Government Technology from 2008 to 2017.

Jessica Mulholland Former Web Editor/Photographer

Jessica Mulholland served as the Web editor of Government Technology magazine from October 2012 through September 2017. She worked for the Government Technology editorial team for nearly 10 years.

Tod Newcombe Senior Editor

With more than 20 years of experience covering state and local government, Tod previously was the editor of Public CIO, e.Republic’s award-winning publication for information technology executives in the public sector. He is now a senior editor for Government Technology and a columnist at Governing magazine.

Eyragon Eidam Web Editor

Eyragon Eidam is the Web editor for Government Technology magazine, after previously serving as  assistant news editor and covering such topics as legislation, social media and public safety. He can be reached at eeidam@erepublic.com.

Ben Miller Staff Writer

Ben Miller is the business beat staff writer for Government Technology. His reporting experience includes breaking news, business, community features and technical subjects. He holds a Bachelor’s degree in journalism from the Reynolds School of Journalism at the University of Nevada, Reno, and lives in Sacramento, Calif.

Ryan McCauley Former Staff Writer

Ryan McCauley was a staff writer for Government Technology magazine from October 2016 through July 2017, and previously served as the publication's editorial assistant.

Jason Shueh former staff writer

Jason Shueh is a former staff writer for Government Technology magazine.